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Indian Case Summary

K. M. Nanavati vs State Of Maharashtra on 24 November, 1961 – Case Summary

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In the case of K. M. Nanavati vs State Of Maharashtra, heard on 24 November 1961, the Supreme Court of India was presented with a complex and highly publicized case involving a Naval Officer, K. M. Nanavati, accused of murdering his wife’s paramour, Prem Bhagwandas Ahuja. The case was notable for its exploration of the legal principles surrounding jury trials, the burden of proof, and the concept of “grave and sudden provocation.”

Facts of the Case

K. M. Nanavati, a Naval Officer, was accused of murdering his wife’s paramour, Ahuja. The prosecution alleged that Nanavati’s wife, Sylvia, confessed to her illicit relationship with Ahuja, which led to Nanavati obtaining a revolver from his ship under false pretenses, visiting Ahuja’s flat, and shooting him dead.

Nanavati’s defense was that he had intended to confront Ahuja about his intentions towards Sylvia and their children, and that he had obtained the revolver with the intention of killing himself. He claimed that he shot Ahuja during a struggle that ensued when he visited Ahuja’s flat.

The jury returned a verdict of ‘not guilty’ by a majority of 8:1. However, the Sessions Judge disagreed with the verdict, believing that no reasonable body of men could have reached that verdict based on the evidence. The case was referred to the High Court under s. 307 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.

Issues and Court Observations

The case raised several legal issues, including the competency of the reference to the High Court, the power of the High Court to set aside the verdict of the jury due to misdirections in the charge, and the application of the concept of “grave and sudden provocation.”

The court held that the reference to the High Court was competent, and that the High Court had the power to set aside the jury’s verdict if there were misdirections in the charge. The court also clarified the distinction between the general burden of proof that lies on the prosecution and the special burden imposed on the accused when pleading any of the General Exceptions in the Indian Penal Code.

The court further held that the concept of “grave and sudden provocation” did not apply in this case. The test for this concept is whether a reasonable person belonging to the same class of society as the accused, placed in a similar situation, would be so provoked as to lose self-control. The court found that the fatal blow should be clearly traced to the influence of the passion arising from that provocation, and not after the passion had cooled down by lapse of time or otherwise, giving room and scope for premeditation and calculation.


The court ultimately found Nanavati guilty of murder under s. 302 of the Indian Penal Code and sentenced him to life imprisonment. The court’s decision in this case provided important clarifications on the principles surrounding jury trials, the burden of proof, and the concept of “grave and sudden provocation.”