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Indian Case Summary

Dayal Singh & Ors vs State Of Uttaranchal on 3 August, 2012

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In the Case of Dayal Singh & Ors vs State Of Uttaranchal on 3 August, 2012


The case revolves around an incident that occurred on 8th December 1985 in the village Salwati, within the limits of Police Station Sittarganj, district Udham Singh Nagar. The fields of Gurumukh Singh and Dayal Singh were adjoining and separated by a boundary mound. On the day of the incident, Gurumukh Singh, along with his father Pyara Singh, had gone to their fields. At about 12:45 p.m., the accused persons, namely Dayal Singh, Budh Singh, Resham Singh, and Pahalwan Singh, came to the fields wielding lathis and started hurling abuses. They attacked Pyara Singh with lathis, and when Gurumukh Singh and his mother, Smt. Balwant Kaur, intervened, they were also attacked. Pyara Singh succumbed to his injuries on the spot.


  1. Investigation and Evidence Assessment: The case raised questions about the approach to be adopted when acts of omission and commission are committed by the investigating agency or significant witnesses instrumental in proving the offense.
  2. Conflict Between Eye-Witness Version and Medical Evidence: The case also dealt with the conflict between the eye-witness version of events and the medical evidence, and how it affects the prosecution’s case.

Court’s Observations:

  1. Eye-Witness Testimony: The court found that there were three eye-witnesses to the occurrence, two of whom were injured witnesses. Their presence at the place of occurrence was deemed natural, and their statements were found to be reliable and consistent.
  2. Medical Evidence and Investigation: Despite the post-mortem report showing no external or internal injuries on the deceased’s body, the court held that the eye-witnesses’ testimony could not be discarded. The court noted that the Investigating Officer and the doctor had failed to perform their duties in accordance with the police manual and medical practice, respectively.
  3. Acts of Omission and Commission in Investigation: The court observed that a default or breach of duty, whether intentional or otherwise, could sometimes prove fatal to the prosecution’s case. However, it was also noted that despite such default or omission, the prosecution might still prove its case beyond reasonable doubt.


The Supreme Court of India upheld the judgment of the Trial Court and the High Court, finding the accused persons guilty of offenses under Section 302 read with Section 34 IPC and Section 323 read with Section 34 IPC. The court emphasized that an eye-witness version cannot be discarded merely because of a relationship with the deceased or due to defective or irresponsible investigation. The court also stressed the importance of diligence, truthfulness, and fairness in the approach and investigation by the Investigating Officer and other material witnesses.

Thought-Provoking Questions:

  1. The Role of Medical Evidence: How can the legal system ensure that medical evidence is accurately presented and aligned with eye-witness testimonies, especially when there are discrepancies between the two?
  2. Investigation Procedures: What measures can be implemented to ensure that Investigating Officers and other material witnesses adhere to proper procedures and standards, thereby minimizing the risk of defective or irresponsible investigations?
  3. Reliability of Eye-Witness Testimonies: How can the courts strike a balance between relying on eye-witness testimonies and considering other forms of evidence, especially when there are conflicts between different pieces of evidence?