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Indian Case Summary

D.C. Bhatia And Ors. vs Union Of India (Uoi) And Anr. on 19 October, 1994 – Case Summary

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In the case of D.C. Bhatia And Ors. vs Union Of India (Uoi) And Anr. on 19 October, 1994, the Supreme Court of India was called upon to interpret and assess the constitutional validity of Section 3(c) of the Rent Control Act, 1958. The case was heard alongside several other appeals, special leave petitions, and writ petitions, all of which raised common questions of law relating to the interpretation and constitutional validity of the said section.

Facts of the Case

The Delhi Rent Control Act, as amended by Act No. 52 of 1988, came into effect from 1st December 1988. Section 3(c) of the amended Act stipulated that the provisions of the Delhi Rent Control Act would not apply to any premises whose monthly rent exceeded Rs. 3,500/-. The appellant challenged the validity of the newly inserted Section 3(c) of the Act in the Delhi High Court. The High Court, however, upheld the validity of Section 3(c), ruling that it was a valid piece of legislation and did not contravene any provisions of the Constitution. The present batch of appeals was directed against the judgment of the Delhi High Court dated 11th February, 1991.

Issues Raised

The primary contention of the appellant was that the provisions of Sub-section (c) of Section 3 were ultra vires Article 14 of the Constitution. The appellant argued that the Legislature had not appreciated the present-day realities of the landlord-tenant relationship. They contended that if landlords were given a free hand to raise the rent of the premises, they would abuse this freedom and demand unreasonable and exorbitant rents. The classification of properties on the rental basis was deemed arbitrary and discriminatory. The cut-off point of Rs. 3,500/- for the purpose of exclusion from the benefit of the Rent Control Legislation was argued to have been fixed arbitrarily.

Court’s Observations

The Court observed that the Rent Acts were enacted originally as temporary measures to protect tenants from eviction and arbitrary enhancements of rent. However, over time, these laws were often abused by rich tenants against poor or middle-class landlords. The Rent Act had brought to a halt house-building activity for letting out, leading to an acute shortage of accommodation. In light of this, the Delhi Rent Control Act was amended in 1988.

The Court held that it was for the Legislature to decide what should be the cut-off point for the purpose of classification. The Legislature was accorded a lot of latitude in this regard. The Court stated that the constitutional guarantee of equality could only be invoked if the classification was made on grounds totally irrelevant to the object of the statute. If there was some nexus between the objects sought to be achieved and the classification, the Legislature was presumed to have acted in the proper exercise of its constitutional power.


In conclusion, the Supreme Court upheld the validity of Section 3(c) of the Rent Control Act, 1958, ruling that the classification of properties based on rental basis was not arbitrary or discriminatory. The Court held that the Legislature had the authority to decide the cut-off point for the purpose of classification, and as long as there was a rational nexus between the classification and the object of the statute, the classification would be deemed valid.