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Indian Case Summary

Bodh Raj @ Bodha And Ors vs State Of Jammu And Kashmir on 3 September, 2002 – Case Summary

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In the case of Bodh Raj @ Bodha And Ors vs State Of Jammu And Kashmir on 3 September 2002, the Supreme Court of India was tasked with examining a complex case involving multiple accused parties and a series of events that led to the death of Swaran Singh @ Pappi, who was running a finance company. The case was heard by a bench consisting of Ruma Pal and Arijit Pasayat.

Facts of the Case

The deceased, Swaran Singh @ Pappi, was running a finance company. Two of the accused, Ashok Kumar (accused No. 2) and Ravinder Kumar (accused No. 1), had taken substantial loans from the deceased. On 3rd August 1994, the deceased was attacked by some individuals, later identified as accused No. 3 to 10. Accused No. 1 and 2 were present during the attack but did not intervene or report the incident to the police. The prosecution argued that these two accused had orchestrated the attack due to their financial obligations to the deceased.


The primary issues in this case revolved around the credibility of the circumstantial evidence and the identification of the accused. The defense argued that there was no direct evidence of conspiracy, the identification of the witnesses was improbable, and the recoveries purported to have been made pursuant to the disclosure by the accused were highly improbable.

Court’s Observations

The court observed that a crime can be proved by circumstantial evidence, and the inference of guilt can be justified only when all the incriminating facts and circumstances are found to be incompatible with the innocence of the accused or the guilt of any other persons. The court also noted that the evidence leading to the discovery of any fact is admissible in evidence against the accused.

The court found that the accused Nos. 1 and 2 left in the company of the deceased, and some evidence was brought to establish the motive i.e., the indebtedness of the accused to the deceased. In addition to this, there was the evidence of PWs 1 and 2. The court also noted the statement of Hari Kumar (PW-18), who stated that accused No. 2 came to his shop and took sweets and left in car No. 566 JK02B belonging to accused No. 1.


The case of Bodh Raj @ Bodha And Ors vs State Of Jammu And Kashmir is a complex case that underscores the importance of circumstantial evidence in the legal process. The court’s observations highlight the necessity of thoroughly examining all the facts and circumstances of a case, and the need for evidence to be incompatible with the innocence of the accused for a conviction to be justified. The case also emphasizes the importance of the credibility of witnesses and the admissibility of evidence leading to the discovery of any fact.